February 22, 2024

To demonstrate the reflex activity

To demonstrate the reflex activity

Aim :

To demonstrate the reflex activity.

Introduction :

A reflex or reflex action is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles (or secretion of a gland) in response to a specific stimulus, and which involves some part of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

The reflex arc is the anatomical nervous pathway for reflex action.

Components of Reflex arc

A simple reflex arc includes 5 components:

  1. The receptor is the end organ which receives the stimulus.
  2. The afferent nerve (sensory nerve) transmits sensory impulses from the receptor to the centre.
  3. The centre (located in the brain or spinal cord) receives the sensory impulses via afferent nerve fibres and then generates appropriate motor impulses.
  4. The efferent nerve ( motor nerve) transmits motor impulses from the centre to the effector organ.
  5. Effector organ such as the muscle or gland shows the response to the stimulus.

Classification of Reflexes

Reflexes are classified depending upon:

(a) whether inborn(unconditioned) or acquired (conditioned; need previous training)

(b) the situation of the centre (cerebellar, cortical, midbrain, bulbar or medullary, and spinal);

(c) purpose or functional significance (protective or flexor and antigravity or extensor reflexes);

(d) number of synapses (monosynaptic and polysynaptic ); and

(e) clinical basis (superficial, deep, visceral and pathological reflexes).


BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical

To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads


First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

Suggested readings


  • Navigating the Intricacies of Subdural Space: An In-Depth Academic Exploration

  • Unraveling the Complex World of Embolization: A Comprehensive Guide

  • Unveiling Subdural Hematoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment