Definitions Pharmaceutical Chemistry
These are the antimicrobial agents that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection or sepsis.
e.g., Iodine, Alcohol, Povidone Iodine, etc
These are the substances applied on Non-living objects or inanimate and are used to destroy harmful microorganisms or bacteria.
e.g., Phenol, Formaldehyde etc.
It is the combination of two or more drugs administered together to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects i.e., greater than each drug would produce alone.
Synergism comes from the Greek word “synergos” meaning working together.
e.g., Codeine + Aspirin, Sulphonamide + Trimethoprim, Caffeine + paracetamol, Aspirin + Warfarin etc.
1. Summation /Addition
Effect of drugs A + B = Effect of drug A + Effect of drug B Final effect is the same as the algebraic sum of the magnitude of individuals drugs
• Side effects do not add up Examples of Summation:
2. Different MOA Aspirin: (-) PG synthesis à analgesia + Codeine: Opioid agonist à analgesia + Examples of Addition: Same MOA Ibuprofen: (-) PG synth à analgesia + Paracetamol: (-) PG synth à analgesia+ Analgesia ++ Analgesia ++
3. Other Additive Drug Combinations Drug Combination Effect Amlodipine + Atenolol Antihypertensive Glibenclamide + Metformin Hypoglycemic
4. Supraadditive (Potentiation) Effect of drug A + B > Effect of drug A + Effect of drug B.
When two drugs are given together the final effect is much more than the simple algebraic sum of the magnitude of individual drugs.
Examples: Sulphamethoxazole & Trimethoprim— sequential blockade of two steps in the synthesis of folic acid in micro-organisms.
It is a chronic, moderately contagious communicable disease caused due to slow-growing, rod-shaped, acid-fast bacteria called Mycobacterium laprae. It is also called “Hansen’s disease” since it was first identified by Hansen in 1871.
These are the drugs that are used in Rx of leprosy caused due to acid-fast, slow-growing, rod-shaped bacteria called Mycobacterium laprae
e.g., Dapsone, Solapsone etc.
These are the agents which interfere with the proliferation of bacterium that causes leprosy i.e., Mycobacterium laprae
These are the diverse group of compounds that are used either alone or in combination with to treat mycobacterium infections. i.e., TB & Leprosy
e.g., Rifampicin, INH, Ethambutol, etc.
It is an acute or chronic communicable disease spread due to gram-positive acid-fast bacteria i.e., slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Symptoms include :
Pain: In the chest & can occur while breathing.
Cough: Chronic with blood.
Whole-body: Fatigue, fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, malaise (discomfort).
Common: unintentional weight loss, shortness of breath, etc.
The drugs which are used in the treatment of tuberculosis are caused due to gram-positive, slow-growing, acid-fast mycobacterium tuberculosis.
e.g., INH (Isoniazid), PAS (Para amino salicylic acid), Pyrazinamide.
It is a Gastrointestinal infection caused due to protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica
Severe cases: Intestinal perforation, Ulceration (blood and mucous in stool), Haemorrhage
The drug which is used in Rx of amoebiasis is caused due to protozoon parasite Entamoeba (enta: within, amoeba: change) histolylica (histo: tissue, lytica: to break or dissolve) are called anti-amoebic drugs.
e.g., Metronidazole, Emetine HCl etc
It is also known as “helminth infection” or worm infection which is macroparasitic infection in which macroparasite infect /invade human & other animals.
It is a disease in which part of the body is infected with worms such as pinworm, roundworm or tapeworm
fever & Fatigue
Anorexia, Eosinophilia etc.
These are the drugs that are used in the treatment of infestation with parasite worm which may either expel the worm or kill the worm.
e.g., Albendazole, Mebendazole
These are the substances produced or derived from certain species of microorganisms & their synthetic analogues have properties of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms or destroying other microorganisms in higher dilution/low concentrations.
e.g., Penicillin, Cephalosporin, etc.
These are the drugs that are used in the treatment of fungal infections(mycoses) such as athlete’s foot, ringworm infections & candidiasis are called antifungal drugs.
e.g., Fluconazole, Ketonazole, etc.
It is a disease of the tropical and subtropical regions which is caused due to four types of plasmodium species which are as follows
i. Plasmodium vivax
ii. Plasmodium falciparum
iii. Plasmodium ovale
iv. Plasmodium malariae
It is transmitted by the bite of the female anopheles’ mosquito.
Pain: Abdomen and muscles
Whole-body: Fever, night sweats, chills, fatigue.
G.I: diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting.
Common: Headache, pallor (pale skin) (lack of sun exposure), mental confusion.
These are the drugs that are intended to be used in Rx of & prevention of malaria by killing the causative parasite.
i.e., P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.ovale, P,malariae in the liver &blood stream.
e.g., Chloroquine, Primaquine, etc.
These are the CNS depressant drug that brings about calming effects & induces a mild sedative effect.
These are used to treat major states of mental disturbance in schizophrenia & also known as antimanic agents.
e.g., Butyrophenone (Haloperidol), PTZ-Chlorpromazine
These are used to treat milder symptoms of anxiety & tension in a healthy individual with less serious mental disorders.
e.g., BDZ (Diazepam)
These are the drugs that by depression of CNS produce mild depression and calm anxiety (restlessness) excitation without causing drowsiness & impaired performance.
At therapeutic doses, they act as anxiolytic agents.
At larger doses they produce hypnosis.
These are the drugs that produce sleep by depression of CNS.
e.g., phenobarbitone, thiopentone etc.
At therapeutic Doses: Maintenance of sleep.
At langer doses: They produce General anaesthesia
At low doses: Act only Sedative
e.g., Phenobarbitone Sedative (oral route) BID 30-120 mg/day Hypnotic (IV/IM route) 100-320mg/day.
It is a state in which there is depression of CNS which produces reversible loss of consciousness /Reverse unconsciousness and insensibility to pain (analgesia) Or
It is a controlled reversible depression of functional activity of CNS which produces unconsciousness & insensibility to pain.
These are the drugs or agents which cause CNS depression producing reversible loss of consciousness & analgesia (Insensibility to pain)
e.g., Halothane, Nitric oxide, Chloroform etc.
These are the drugs used in the pronounced depression of CNS & Can be used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, some pain conditions, & help manage addictions.
e.g., Imipramine, Phenelzine etc
They are also known as CNS stimulant drugs which are used to reduce narcosis or drowsiness caused by excessive use of CNS depressant drugs or to increase the activity of various parts/ subunits of CNS. i.e (brain & spinal cord)
e.g., Caffeine, Nikethamide, etc.
The drugs which show action similar to adrenaline by acting adrenergic receptors (α & B) & increase the activity on of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) are known as Adrenergic Drugs.
e.g., Noradrenaline, Amphetamine, Isoprenaline etc.
The action produced by stimulation of the adrenergic or sympathetic nervous system can be blocked or antagonised by the drugs called an adrenergic antagonist or antiadrenergic or sympatholytic drugs
e.g., Tolazoline, Phentolamine, etc
The drugs which produce action (Exert / mimic) the physiological action or effects of Acetylcholine or drugs either by directly interacting with cholinergic receptors (M&N) or by increasing the availability of (ACH) at the SOA (site of action) which bring about stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) are called as parasympathomimetics / cholinergic drugs.
e.g., Methacholine, Arecoline etc.
The drugs which block the action of Ach (Acetylcholine) & brings about a similar action as that of Atropine & block the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) are called cholinergic Antagonist/parasympatholytic /atropinic.
e.g., Hyoscine, Atropine etc.
These are the drugs that increase or facilitate the rate of urine excretion / Outflow by kidneys mainly by inhibiting the Reabsorption of sodium & its osmotic equivalent amount of H₂0.
e.g., Urea, Frusemide etc
These are the drugs that are used for their action on the heart or on other parts of the vascular system to modify the total output of the heart or distribution of drugs to certain parts of the circulatory system
e.g., Antihypertensive (Rauwolfia), Antianginal (organic nitrates), Antihyperlipidemic (clofibrate)
The glycosides which are present in D. strophanthus (squill) & which are used to increase the (FOC) force of contraction of the heart without increasing the oxygen consumption are called cardiac glycosides.
These are mainly used for ionotropic effect and for the effect on conducting system of heart & are used to increase the (force of contraction) of heart. (Positive ionotropic) without increasing oxygen consumption.
e.g., Digitalis & other Cardiac glycosides
The drugs which are used to reduce elevated or increased B.P. i.e., Hypertension (Normal B.P 120/80 mm of Hg) chronic medical condition in which B.P in the arteries increases.
e.g., Propranolol, Atenolol etc.
Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). They are called lipid-lowering drugs.
e.g., Statins (Atorvastatin) , Fibrates (Clofibrates)
These are the drugs used to suppress or decrease abnormal rhythm of the heart (cardiac arrhythmia) such as Tachycardia, bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular fibrillate.
e.g., Quinidine, Amiodarone etc.
It is characterized by hyperglycaemia, polyphagia (appetite), polydipsia (thirst), polyurea, glycosuria (sugar in urine), caused due to deficiency of insulin or resistance to insulin.
These drugs or agents are used in Rx of diabetes mellitus which is characterized by polyphagia, polydipsia, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia, dehydration.
e.g., Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide.
These are the drugs that promote, coagulation of blood and are used in the haemorrhage (Bleeding).
e.g., Vitamin K (menadione, phylloquinone) Thrombin
These are the drugs that prolong coagulation time & prevent blood coagulation (clot formation).
e.g., Warfarin, Heparin, Dicoumarol
It is the process to prevent & stop bleeding, which involves coagulation or blood changing from liquid to gel.
These are the which promotes haemostasis (stop bleeding).
These are the drug that on topical application / local injection causes a reversible loss of sensory perception especially pain in the restricted areas of the body.
e.g., Procaine & Lignocaine etc.
The agents which are useful in the treatment of allergic symptoms like dermatitis, pruritis, urticaria, sneezing, running nose are caused due to histamine release.
The drugs which decrease the pain by acting on CNS or peripherally without altering consciousness are known as analgesics.
The drugs reduce elevated body temperature or fever mainly by showing its action on the hypothalamus (limbic system) (responsible for body temperature regulations)
The drugs which are used to decrease inflammation caused by various reasons like pain, oedema, erythema & chronic-inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis etc. are known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
e.g., Ibuprofen, Mefenamic acid
These are derivatives of opium (dried latex of opium poppy i.e., species of flowering plant) of psychoactive agents having potent analgesic activity hence useful in the treatment of acute & severe pain.
e.g., Morphine, Codeine etc.
These are the drugs that are useful in Rx & hyperthyroidism the condition
is also known as “Grave’s disease”
GRAVE’S DISEASE: It is an autoimmune disease receptor that increases on the thyroid gland & overproduces T4 and T3.
1) Enlargement of the thyroid gland
2) Bulging of eyes, muscle weakness
3) Increased heart rate, irritability
These are the substances generally introduced into the body or specific organ & are used to detect the abnormalities in them Since they do not have any therapeutic value and, are not used in the treatment of any disease /disorder.
e.g., Indigo Carmine, Evans’s blue, Congo red etc.
It is a group of neurological disorders characterised by brief episodes of loss/disturbance of consciousness with or without body movement.
Common symptoms are fatigue, fainting -Rhythmic muscle contraction or Muscle spasms. Seizure, amnesia, anxiety, depression. etc
The drugs which are used in the prevention & control of epileptic seizures are known as antiepileptic drugs / anti-convulsant drugs.
e.g., Phenytoin, phenobarbitone etc.
Vitamins may be defined as potent organic substances which are essential for the normal growth & maintenance of life of humans & animals who are not able to synthesize in adequate quantity (Except vit-D) & are obtained from the diet.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) (Vit- G)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)S
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Vitamin D2 (Calciferol)
Vitamin D3 (Ergocalciferol)
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Vitamin K (Phyto menadione)
Fat & Water Soluble
Vitamin B7/ Biotin / Vitamin H
S.D / steroids are naturally occurring or synthetic fat-soluble tetracyclic compounds. Which contains four rings.
Ring A=Cyclohexane ring
Ring B=Cyclohexane ring
Ring C=Cyclohexane ring
Ring D=Cyclopentane ring
(Basic Steroidal Nucleus)
The groups which are shown by thick line (—) are above the plane of the nucleus & denoted by (B) The groups which
are shown by the dotted line (….) are below the plane. Of the nucleus & are denoted by (Alpha).
It is a group of diseases that involves abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade spread to other parts of the body. Metastasis: Having the ability to travel from the site of origin to another part of the body.
Hyperplasia: rapid proliferation (rapid Increase)
These are the drugs that are used in the treatment of malignant disease i.e. (neoplasm/cancer) are called anti-cancer/cytotoxic drugs. Used only when surgery or radiotherapy becomes ineffective.
e.g., 5-FU, Vincristine etc.
A malignant tumour can break & enter into the bloodstream & forms secondary tumours this spread of cancer is known as metastasis.