May 30, 2024

Definition Classification of hospital: Hospital and its organization Pharmacy Practice

Definition Classification of hospital: Hospital and its organization Pharmacy Practice

Definition of Hospital

Hospital is a complex organization. It is an institute of provides health to individuals with the help of complex and special scientific equipment in the presence of trained staff who are well-educated in the problems of modern medical sciences.

For achieving the goal of maintaining the good health of individuals suffering from diseases and relieving them from pain, all the staff members of hospitals coordinate together. Hence, a hospital is a specialized organization in which patient care is the main focus.

In modern hospitals, there is ample space and well-qualified and skilled personnel who provide curative, restorative, and preventive services of extreme quality to all the patients irrespective of their race, color, creed, or financial status.

As per WHO, “Hospitals are reservoirs of critical resources and knowledge. They can be classified according to the interventions they provide, the roles they play in the health system and the health and    educational services they offer to the communities in and around them.”

Classification of Hospital

Classification Based on Clinical Basis

Hospitals categorized based on this criteria are general hospitals that cure all types of diseases. However, they are mainly focused on curing heart disease, cancer, ophthalmic, maternity, etc. conditions. Hospitals are classified as follows

Based on their anatomical- physiological specialization:

  1. General Hospital: General hospitals provide a wide range of medical services and treat various conditions. They have multiple departments and offer comprehensive healthcare for different specialties.
  2. Cardiac Hospital: Cardiac hospitals specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of heart-related conditions. They have advanced cardiac care units, specialized equipment, and skilled cardiologists.
  3. Orthopedic Hospital: Orthopedic hospitals focus on the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, including bone and joint disorders, fractures, sports injuries, and spinal conditions. They often have specialized orthopedic surgeons and physical therapists.
  4. Pediatric Hospital: Pediatric hospitals cater exclusively to the medical needs of children and adolescents. They have specialized pediatricians, pediatric nurses, and child-friendly facilities to provide comprehensive care for pediatric conditions.
  5. Maternity Hospital: Maternity hospitals, also known as maternity centers or birthing centers, specialize in prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care for expectant mothers. They have obstetricians, midwives, and neonatologists to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the newborn.
  6. Cancer Hospital: Cancer hospitals specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various types of cancers. They have oncologists, radiation therapy departments, surgical units, and other specialized services for cancer care.
  7. Psychiatric Hospital: Psychiatric hospitals provide specialized mental health services for individuals with psychiatric disorders. They have psychiatrists, psychologists, therapists, and other mental health professionals to diagnose, treat, and support patients with mental health conditions.
  8. Rehabilitation Hospital: Rehabilitation hospitals focus on providing specialized care and therapy for patients recovering from surgeries, injuries, or debilitating conditions. They offer physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other rehabilitation services to help patients regain functional independence.
  9. Eye Hospital: Eye hospitals specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders, including vision correction procedures, cataract surgeries, and treatment of retinal conditions. They have ophthalmologists and optometrists with expertise in eye care.
  10. Geriatric Hospital: Geriatric hospitals cater to the medical needs of elderly patients, particularly those with age-related conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and mobility issues. They provide comprehensive geriatric care, including specialized geriatricians, nurses, and rehabilitation services.

These are just a few examples of specialized hospitals based on anatomical-physiological specialization. There are many more types of hospitals that focus on specific medical specialties to deliver targeted healthcare services.

Based on the client group they serve:

Hospitals can be categorized based on the client group they serve. Here are some common types of hospitals based on the client group:

  1. General Hospitals: These hospitals serve a wide range of clients, including adults, children, and seniors. They provide comprehensive medical services, including emergency care, surgery, maternity care, and specialized departments such as cardiology, neurology, and pediatrics.
  2. Pediatric Hospitals: These hospitals specialize in providing medical care exclusively for children and adolescents. They have pediatricians and other specialists who are trained to address the unique healthcare needs of young patients.
  3. Women’s Hospitals: These hospitals focus on women’s health issues, including obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive health. They provide services such as prenatal care, labor and delivery, fertility treatments, and breast health care.
  4. Geriatric Hospitals: Geriatric hospitals cater to the healthcare needs of older adults, particularly those with age-related illnesses, chronic conditions, and complex medical needs. They may have specialized programs for geriatric assessment, memory care, and rehabilitation for seniors.
  5. Psychiatric Hospitals: Psychiatric hospitals provide specialized mental health services for individuals with psychiatric disorders or behavioral health issues. They offer comprehensive evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation programs for patients dealing with mental illnesses.
  6. Rehabilitation Hospitals: Rehabilitation hospitals focus on providing intensive rehabilitative care for patients recovering from injuries, surgeries, or illnesses. They have specialized rehabilitation programs for individuals with physical disabilities, stroke, spinal cord injuries, and other conditions that require therapy and support.
  7. Specialty Hospitals: Specialty hospitals are dedicated to specific medical specialties, such as cancer centers, orthopedic hospitals, cardiac hospitals, or eye hospitals. These facilities have a high level of expertise and advanced equipment to offer specialized care in their respective fields.
  8. Teaching Hospitals: Teaching hospitals are affiliated with medical schools or universities. They provide training to medical students, residents, and fellows, while also offering patient care services. These hospitals often have advanced research programs and access to the latest medical technologies.
  9. Rural Hospitals: Rural hospitals are located in remote areas and serve communities with limited access to healthcare services. They play a crucial role in providing basic medical care, emergency services, and some specialized care to rural populations.
  10. Military Hospitals: Military hospitals provide medical care to active-duty military personnel, veterans, and their families. These hospitals are operated by the military and offer a wide range of services, including general healthcare, trauma care, and specialized care for service-related injuries.

It’s important to note that while these categories provide a general overview, many hospitals offer a combination of services and may cater to multiple client groups.

Based on system of medicine adopted for treatment

Hospitals around the world typically adopt different systems of medicine for treatment, depending on the region, culture, and medical practices prevalent in that area. Here are some of the commonly recognized systems of medicine and the hospitals associated with them:

  1. Allopathic or Western Medicine: This is the dominant system of medicine in most countries, including the United States, Canada, Europe, and many others. Hospitals following allopathic medicine provide a wide range of treatments, including surgery, pharmaceutical interventions, and advanced diagnostic procedures.
  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM): TCM is a holistic system of medicine originating from China. TCM hospitals primarily focus on acupuncture, herbal medicine, massage, and dietary therapies, along with other techniques such as cupping and tai chi.
  3. Ayurveda: Originating from India, Ayurveda is an ancient system of medicine that emphasizes a personalized approach to health and wellness. Ayurvedic hospitals provide treatments based on herbal remedies, dietary modifications, yoga, meditation, and various detoxification procedures.
  4. Naturopathy: Naturopathy is a system of medicine that aims to support the body’s natural healing abilities using a combination of natural therapies. Naturopathic hospitals may offer treatments such as herbal medicine, nutrition counseling, homeopathy, hydrotherapy, and lifestyle modifications.
  5. Homeopathy: Homeopathy is a system of medicine that uses highly diluted substances to stimulate the body’s self-healing abilities. Homeopathic hospitals provide treatment based on individualized remedies prescribed according to the principle of “like cures like.”
  6. Unani Medicine: Unani medicine traces its roots to ancient Greece and is widely practiced in South Asia and the Middle East. Unani hospitals offer treatments based on herbal medicines, dietary advice, cupping, and other therapeutic interventions.
  7. Traditional Korean Medicine: Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) combines elements of Chinese medicine, indigenous Korean practices, and modern medicine. TKM hospitals offer treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion, and Korean-specific therapies like Sasang constitutional medicine.

It’s important to note that the availability of hospitals and the systems of medicine practiced may vary from country to country. Additionally, many hospitals integrate multiple systems of medicine to provide a comprehensive approach to patient care.

Classification Based on Non-Clinical Basis

Hospitals on a non-clinical basis are classified as follows:

  1. Classification Based on Ownership/Control Basis: Hospitals categorized based on this criteria are of the following types:
    1. Public Hospitals: These hospitals are under the control of Central or State Governments or local bodies on non-commercial lines. They can be general hospitals or specialized hospitals or both.
    2. Voluntary Hospitals: These hospitals are recognized and combined under the Societies Registration Act  1860 or Public Trust Act 1882 or any other act of Central or State Governments. They are supported by public or private funds on a non-commercial basis.
    3. Private Nursing Homes: These are regulated by an individual doctor or a group of doctors on a commercial basis. Patients suffering from infirmity, advanced age, illness, injury, chronic disease, disability, etc. are admitted here. However, patients having communicable diseases, alcoholism, drug addiction, or mental illness are not treated.
    4. Corporate Hospitals: These hospitals are public limited companies running on commercial lines and formed under the Companies Act. They can be general or specialized or both.
  2. Classification Based on the Objectives: Hospitals based on these criteria can be subdivided as follows:
    1. Teaching-cum-Research Hospitals: These are the hospitals having a college for the education of medical, nursing, dental, or pharmacy. Teaching is the major aim of these hospitals and the provision of healthcare is secondary. AIIMS (New Delhi), PGIMER (Chandigarh), JIPMER, (Pondicherry), KR Hospital (Mysore), Victoria Hospital (Bangalore), etc. are some examples of teaching-cum-research hospitals.
    2. General Hospitals: These hospitals help for curing common diseases. They have at least two or more doctors, who can offer in-patient accommodation and provide medical and nursing care for more than one category of medical disciplines, such as general medicine, general surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, etc. Their primary aim is to provide medical support to the people, and teaching and research are secondary. Examples of these hospitals are all districts and Taluk or PHC or rural hospitals.
    3. Specialized Hospitals: These hospitals provide medical and nursing care for one discipline or a disease or a condition of one system. They concentrate on a particular aspect of the body organ and give medical and nursing care in the particular field, e.g., tuberculosis, ENT, ophthalmology, leprosy, orthopedics, pediatrics, cardiology, mental health/psychiatric, oncology, STDs, maternal, etc.
    4. Isolation Hospitals: These hospitals treat patients who are suffering from infections and communicable diseases and need to be isolated. Epidemic diseases hospital (Bangalore) is an example of an isolation hospital.
  3. Classification Based on Size (Bed Strength): According to the Health Committee Report, the following pattern of development of hospitals should be accepted on the basis of size:
    1. Teaching Hospitals:   These hospitals have 500 beds and can be increased depending on the number of students.
    2. District Hospitals: These hospitals have 200 beds and can be increased up to 300 depending on the population.
    3. Taluk Hospitals: These hospitals have 50 beds and can be increased depending on the population.
    4. Primary Health Centres: These hospitals have 6 beds and can be increased up to 10 depending on the needs.
  4. Classification Based on Management:  Hospitals based on this criteria can be subdivided as follows:
    1. Union Government/Government of India: These hospitals are controlled by the Government of India. Hospitals run by the railways, military/defense, mining, or public sector activities of the Central Government are examples of such hospitals.
    2. State Governments:   These hospitals are controlled by the state or union territory. Government authorities and public sector activities running through the state or union territories comprising the police, prison, irrigation department, etc. are examples of such hospitals.
    3. Local Bodies:   These hospitals are managed by local bodies, such as municipal corporations, municipalities, Zila Parishad, Panchayat,  e.g., corporation maternity homes.
    4. Autonomous Bodies:      These hospitals are formed under a  special act of parliament or state legislation. They are financially supported by the Central/State government/Union territory. AIIMS (New Delhi), PGIMER (Chandigarh), NIMHANS (Bangalore), KMIO (Bangalore), etc. are some examples of such hospitals.
  5. Classification Based on Cost: Hospitals based on this criteria can be subdivided as follows:
    1. Elite Hospitals: These hospitals are a symbol of high-tech medical development. The per-day room rates vary between 300-1200. The deluxe rooms have a fridge, television, and telephone. Excluding the medical care, they are similar to five-star hotels, thus, are also called five-star hospitals. These institutions reserve a particular percentage of their capacity for poorer sections and also support a particular percentage of their accommodation cost. For example, Jaslok has reserved 25% for the poorer sections and 30% at half the rates. In Mumbai hospital, 315 beds out of 680 are free and 112 beds are funded.
    2. Budget Hospitals:  These hospitals are for moderate budget and low budget users, e.g., civil hospitals, corporation hospitals, etc.

Final Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

Final Year B Pharm Sem VIIBP701T Instrumental Methods of Analysis Theory
BP702T Industrial Pharmacy TheoryBP703T Pharmacy Practice Theory
BP704T Novel Drug Delivery System TheoryBP705 P Instrumental Methods of Analysis Practical
Final Year B Pharm Sem VIIBP801T Biostatistics and Research Methodology Theory
BP802T Social and Preventive Pharmacy TheoryBP803ET Pharmaceutical Marketing Theory
BP804ET Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science TheoryBP805ET Pharmacovigilance Theory
BP806ET Quality Control and Standardization of Herbals TheoryBP807ET Computer-Aided Drug Design Theory
BP808ET Cell and Molecular Biology TheoryBP809ET Cosmetic Science Theory
BP810ET Experimental Pharmacology TheoryBP811ET Advanced Instrumentation Techniques Theory
BP812ET Dietary supplements and NutraceuticalsPharmaceutical Product Development

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