Definition Classification of hospital: Hospital and its organization Pharmacy Practice
Definition of Hospital
Hospital is a complex organization. It is an institute of provides health to individuals with the help of complex and special scientific equipment in the presence of trained staff who are well-educated in the problems of modern medical sciences.
For achieving the goal of maintaining the good health of individuals suffering from diseases and relieving them from pain, all the staff members of hospitals coordinate together. Hence, a hospital is a specialized organization in which patient care is the main focus.
In modern hospitals, there is ample space and well-qualified and skilled personnel who provide curative, restorative, and preventive services of extreme quality to all the patients irrespective of their race, color, creed, or financial status.
As per WHO, “Hospitals are reservoirs of critical resources and knowledge. They can be classified according to the interventions they provide, the roles they play in the health system and the health and educational services they offer to the communities in and around them.”
Classification of Hospital
Classification Based on Clinical Basis
Hospitals categorized based on this criteria are general hospitals that cure all types of diseases. However, they are mainly focused on curing heart disease, cancer, ophthalmic, maternity, etc. conditions. Hospitals are classified as follows based on their anatomical- physiological specialization:
- ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) hospitals,
- Eye hospitals,
- Orthopedic hospitals, and
- Kidney hospitals.
Hospitals are classified as follows based on the client group they serve:
- Pediatric hospitals for children,
- Gynecological hospitals for women, and
- Maternity hospitals for mothers.
Hospitals are classified as follows based on the system of medicine adopted for treatment:
- Allopathic hospitals,
- Ayurvedic hospitals,
- Homeopathic hospitals,
- Unani hospitals, and
- Hospitals of other systems of medicine.
Classification Based on Non-Clinical Basis
Hospitals on a non-clinical basis are classified as follows:
- Classification Based on Ownership/Control Basis: Hospitals categorized based on this criteria are of the following types:
- Public Hospitals: These hospitals are under the control of Central or State Governments or local bodies on non -commercial lines. They can be general hospitals or specialized hospitals or both.
- Voluntary Hospitals: These hospitals are recognized and combined under the Societies Registration Act 1860 or Public Trust Act 1882 or any other act of Central or State Governments. They are supported by public or private funds on a non-commercial basis.
- Private Nursing Homes: These are regulated by an individual doctor or a group of doctors on a commercial basis. Patients suffering from infirmity, advanced age, illness, injury, chronic disease, disability, etc. are admitted here. However, patients having communicable diseases, alcoholism, drug addiction, or mental illness are not treated.
- Corporate Hospitals: These hospitals are public limited companies running on commercial lines and formed under the Companies Act. They can be general or specialized or both.
- Classification Based on the Objectives: Hospitals based on these criteria can be subdivided as follows:
- Teaching-cum-Research Hospitals: These are the hospitals having a college for the education of medical, nursing, dental, or pharmacy. Teaching is the major aim of these hospitals and the provision of healthcare is secondary. AIIMS (New Delhi), PGIMER (Chandigarh), JIPMER, (Pondicherry), KR Hospital (Mysore), Victoria Hospital (Bangalore), etc. are some examples of teaching-cum-research hospitals.
- General Hospitals: These hospitals help for curing common diseases. They have at least two or more doctors, who can offer in-patient accommodation and provide medical and nursing care for more than one category of medical disciplines, such as general medicine, general surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, etc. Their primary aim is to provide medical support to the people, and teaching and research are secondary. Examples of these hospitals are all districts and Taluk or PHC or rural hospitals.
- Specialized Hospitals: These hospitals provide medical and nursing care for one discipline or a disease or a condition of one system. They concentrate on a particular aspect of the body organ and give medical and nursing care in the particular field, e.g., tuberculosis, ENT, ophthalmology, leprosy, orthopedics, pediatrics, cardiology, mental health/psychiatric, oncology, STDs, maternal, etc.
- Isolation Hospitals: These hospitals treat patients who are suffering from infections and communicable diseases and need to be isolated. Epidemic diseases hospital (Bangalore) is an example of an isolation hospital.
- Classification Based on Size (Bed Strength): According to the Health Committee Report, the following pattern of development of hospitals should be accepted on the basis of size:
- Teaching Hospitals: These hospitals have 500 beds and can be increased depending on the number of students.
- District Hospitals: These hospitals have 200 beds and can be increased up to 300 depending on the population.
- Taluk Hospitals: These hospitals have 50 beds and can be increased depending on the population.
- Primary Health Centres: These hospitals have 6 beds and can be increased up to 10 depending on the needs.
- Classification Based on Management: Hospitals based on this criteria can be subdivided as follows:
- Union Government/Government of India: These hospitals are controlled by the Government of India. Hospitals run by the railways, military/defense, mining or public sector activities of Central Government are examples of such hospitals.
- State Governments: These hospitals are controlled by the state or union territory. Government authorities and public sector activities running through the state or union territories comprising the police, prison, irrigation department, etc. are the examples of such hospitals.
- Local Bodies: These hospitals are managed by the local bodies, such as municipal corporation, municipality, Zila Parishad, Panchayat, e.g., corporation maternity homes.
- Autonomous Bodies: These hospitals are formed under a special act of parliament or state legislation. They are financially supported by the Central/State Governme nt/Union territory. AIIMS (New Delhi), PGIMER (Chandigarh), NIMHANS (Bangalore), KMIO (Bangalore), etc. are some examples of such hospitals.
- Classification Based on Cost: Hospitals based on this criteria can be subdivided as follows:
- Elite Hospitals: These hospitals are a symbol of high-tech medical development. The per-day room rates vary between 300-1200. The deluxe rooms have a fridge, television, and telephone. Excluding the medical care, they are similar to five-star hotels, thus, are also called five-star hospitals. These institutions reserve a particular percentage of their capacity for poorer sections and also support a particular percentage of their accommodation cost. For example, Jaslok has reserved 25% for the poorer sections and 30% at half the rates. In Mumbai hospital, 315 beds out of 680 are free and 112 beds are funded.
- Budget Hospitals: These hospitals are for moderate budget and low budget users, e.g., civil hospitals, corporation hospitals, etc.
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