July 24, 2024

Covid 19 Epidemiology Symptoms Prevention Control

Covid 19 Epidemiology Symptoms Prevention Control


The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease.

The majority of those infected with the virus will have mild to moderate respiratory symptoms and will recover without the need for medical attention. Some, on the other hand, will become critically unwell and require medical assistance. People who are older or have underlying medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more prone to become seriously ill. COVID-19 can make anyone sick and cause them to get very ill or die at any age.

Being thoroughly informed on the disease and how it spreads is the best strategy to avoid and slow down transmission. Stay at least 1 meter away from people, wear a well-fitted mask, and wash your hands or use an alcohol-based rub periodically to protect yourself and others from infection. When it’s your turn, get vaccinated and follow local advice.

When an infected person coughs, sneezes speaks, sings, or breathes, the virus spreads in microscopic liquid particles from their mouth or nose. Larger respiratory droplets to smaller aerosols are among the particles. If you are sick, it is critical to adopt respiratory etiquette, such as coughing into a flexed elbow and to stay at home and self-isolate until you heal.

Stay informed:

Advice for the public


Questions and answers

Situation reports ( current numbers)

All information on the COVID-19 outbreak

Symptoms :

COVID-19 affects different people in different ways most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization

Most common symptoms:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Anorexia
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion or runny nose
  • Headache
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Loss of smell or taste

Serious symptoms:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath loss of speech or mobility, or confusion
  • Chest pain.
  • Seek immediate medical attention if you have serious symptoms. call before visiting your doctor or health facility.

Incubation period:

People with mild symptoms who are otherwise healthy should manage their symptoms at home. On average it takes 5-6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show. However, it can take up to 14 days.

Transmission :

There are three main ways that COVID-19 can spread:

  1. By breathing in air carrying droplets or aerosol particles that contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus when close to an infected person or in poorly ventilated spaces with infected persons
  2. By having droplets and particles that contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus land on the eyes, nose, or mouth – especially through splashes and sprays like a cough or sneeze
  3. By touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with hands that have the SARS-CoV-2 virus particles on them

Prevention and Control:

Standard precautions include:

  • Hand hygiene
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
  • Cleaning and disinfection of devices and environmental surfaces
  • Safe injection practices
  • Medication storage and handling

Healthcare workers should:

  • Use a medical mask (at least a surgical/medical mask)
  • Wear eye protection (goggles) or facial protection (face shield)
  • Wear a clean, non-sterile, long-sleeve gown
  • Use gloves

To prevent infection and to slow transmission of COVID-19, do the following:

  • Get vaccinated, when a vaccine (Covexin, Covishield, etc) is available to you.
  • Stay at least 1 meter apart from others, even if they don’t appear to be sick. 
  • Wear a properly fitted mask when physical distancing is not possible or when in poorly ventilated settings.
  • Choose open, well-ventilated spaces over closed ones. Open a window indoors. 
  • Wash your hands regularly with soap and water or clean them with an alcohol-based hand rub. 
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. 
  • If you feel unwell, stay home and self-isolate until you recover.

F Y D Pharm & S Y D Pharm Notes, Books, Syllabus, PDF, Videos

First Year D PharmSecond Year D Pharm
ER20-11T Pharmaceutics TheoryER20-21T Pharmacology Theory
ER20-11P Pharmaceutics PracticalER20-21P Pharmacology Practical
ER20-12T Pharmaceutical Chemistry TheoryER20-22T Community Pharmacy & Management Theory
ER20-12P Pharmaceutical Chemistry PracticalER20-22P Community Pharmacy & Management Practical
ER20-13T Pharmacognosy TheoryER20-23T Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology Theory
ER20-13P Pharmacognosy PracticalER20-23P Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology Practical
ER20-14T Human Anatomy Physiology TheoryER20-24T Pharmacotherapeutics Theory
ER2014P Human Anatomy Physiology PracticalER20-24P Pharmacotherapeutics Practical
ER20-15T Social Pharmacy TheoryER20-25T Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy Theory
ER20-15P Social Pharmacy PracticalER20-25P Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy Practical
ER20-26T Pharmacy Law & Ethics

Suggested readings

Recommended readings:

  • Regenerative Medicine: Rejuvenating the Body’s Natural Healing Potential

  • A Legacy of Loss: The Contaminated Blood Scandal and Haemophilia

  • Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): A Minimally Invasive Option for Heart Valve Disease