Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery: rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier
Description of Construction Working and application of Pharmaceutical machinery Such as Rotary Tablet Machine, Fluidized Bed Coated, Fluid Energy Mill, Dehumidifier.
1) ROTARY TABLET MACHINE:
It is also called a multi-station tablet press. It is called rotary machine rotary machine because the head of the machine that holds the upper punches, dies and lower punches in place rotate.
Steps involved in manufacturing of tablet:
• The material to fed through hopper
• The fill cam pulls the lower punches down to a fixed distance and the dies are filled with material
• The quantity of the material filled is larger than the actual amount required, remove excess amount with the help of spatula
• After that, upper punch is lowered and inserted into the dies
• The material is compressed and the tablet are formed
• After the compression, pulls the upper punches into their top position and simultaneously lift the lower punches until the tablets are ejected from the dies
• Then the tablet is passed through discharge chute
It is operated continuously
Used for large scale production
A single rotary press produce 1150 tablets in a minute while double rotary press can produce 10,000 tablets in a minute
2) FLUIDIZED BED COATER:
Three types of air suspension coater are available, namely top spray coater, wurster or bottom spray coater, and tangential spray coater. In top spray coater, there is a counter current (opposite position) it movement of powder particles or pellets and liquid spray. In wurster or bottom spray coater, there is a concurrent (same direction) movement of powder particles or pellets and liquid spray. In tangential spray coater, the powder particles or pellets move in a helical fashion due to spinning rotor disk on the bottom of the equipment.
Steps involved in wurster or bottom spray coater:
The drying inlet air is passed upwards through the bottom perforated plate into the fluid bed chamber
This air passes to wurster column, in which a spray gun perpendicular to bottom plate and parallel to the wurster column
This air passes out from the exhaust filters situated at the top of the equipment
The material to be coated is located is loaded in the fluid bed chamber and fluidized
The inlet air cause fluidization of the material as well as its drying during the coating operation
The pellets are pass through the liquid spray of coating solution from the spray gun positioned parallel to the column
After coating the coated particle falls by gravity at the bottom of wurster column and recycled to coating zone.
It is used to coat pharmaceutical dosage form with polymeric material to mark objectionable taste or odour and also to protect an unstable ingredient and to improve appearance
Fluidized bed coaters are used for coating of powders, granules, tablets, pellets etc by column of air
Fluidized bed coating equipment is popular for coating multiparticulate systems such as beads and non parallel seeds
3) FLUID ENERGY MILL:
A fluid usually air is injected at very high pressure through nozzles at the bottom of the loop, as a result turbulence produce
Solids are introduced into the steam through hopper
Due to this turbulence occur and impacts and attrition occur between the particles
A classifier is fitted at the exist so that only finer size particles are collected as products
The larger size particles are again sent to the stream of air for further size reduction
The particle size of the product is smaller when compared to other method of size reduction
No chance of contamination of the product
This material is suitable where fine powders are required like micro ionization or griseofulvin
Warm moist air is sucked in through one side of the machine
An electric fan is used to draws the air inward
The warm air passes through cold pipes through which a coolant circulators, due to cooling of air, the moisture it contains turns back into liquid water
Then the air passes over a heating element and warms back up to its original temperature
Warm, dry air blows back into the room through another side of machine
The moisture that was in the air drips down into a collecting tray at the bottom of the machine
As the collecting tray fills up, a plastic float in the machine rises upward
When the tray is fill, the float trips an electric switch that turns off the fan and switches on an indicator light which indicates that the machine needs emptying
• A dehumidifier is used to reduce the levels of humidity in the air
• Large dehumidifier are used in commercial buildings such as indoor ice rinks to control the humidity level
Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion
I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.