Classification of cosmetic and cosmeceutical products
Definition of cosmetics as per Indian and EU regulations
Cosmetic” means any article intended to rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on or introduced into, human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, altering the appearance and includes any article intended for use.
A cosmetic product is any substance or mixture intended to be placed in contact with the external parts of the human body, or with the teeth and mucous membranes of the oral cavity, with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance, protecting them, keeping them in good condition or correcting body odours.
Evolution of cosmeceuticals
Although cosmetics for the purpose of beautifying, perfuming, cleansing, or rituals have existed since the origin of civilization, only in the 20th century has great progress been made in the diversification of products and functions and in the safety and protection of the consumer.
Before 1938, cosmetics were not regulated as drugs, and cosmetology could often be considered as a way to sell dreams rather than objective efficacy; safety for consumers was also sometimes precarious. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, regulated cosmetics that were required to be safe for the consumer.
With industrialization, many new ingredients from several industries (oleo- and petrochemical, food, etc.) were used in the preparation of cosmetics, offering a list of new functions and forms. For better control of these ingredients, U.S. laws required ingredient classification and product labelling since 1966.
In Europe, the Council Directive 76/768/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to cosmetic products (“Cosmetics Directive”) was adopted in 1976 to ensure the free circulation of cosmetic products and improve the safety of cosmetic products by placing the responsibility of the product on the cosmetic manufacturer.
In 1991, the Cosmetics Directive was amended for the sixth time and prohibited the marketing of cosmetic products containing ingredients or combinations of ingredients tested on animals, as of 1998.
With the seventh amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive in 2003, a testing ban on finished cosmetic products was applied after 11 September 2004, whereas the testing ban on ingredients or combination of ingredients will be applied as soon as alternative methods are validated and adopted, with a maximum deadline of 11 March 2009, irrespective of the availability of alternative non–animal tests. For some endpoints (repeated-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and toxicokinetics), a maximum deadline of 11 March 2013 was set up.
Currently, big changes in the regulatory context are taking place and will greatly impact the cosmetic market. A recast of the European Cosmetic Directive has been adopted and is waiting for implementation very soon; this will strengthen consumer protection by limiting further the use of some ingredients and implementing stricter rules of postmarketing surveillance. The implementation of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals) will also have implications by limiting the number of ingredients available to the cosmetic industry and creating high pressure on small and middle-size enterprises (SMEs). At a later stage, we may also expect changes in ingredient availabilities at a global level, with the set up of the global harmonization system (GHS). All the changes in the regulatory context are often an “affair of specialists,” and we are proud to have real experts who have accepted to discuss the latest developments in that field for the purpose of this handbook.
Another topic that is clearly of interest today is the replacement of animal testing by alternative methods for testing the safety of cosmetic ingredients. The cosmetic industry, by separate activities or via its association, the COLIPA (The “European Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Perfumery Association”), has been extremely active in developing in vitro methods and strategies for confirming the safety of their ingredients. Even if much work has still to be done, great progress has been realized. Some updates on method developments are described in this book, although it has not been possible to cover all of them.
Finally, cosmetology has become a science-based on the combination of various expertise domains: chemistry, physics, biology, bioengineering, dermatology, microbiology, toxicology, statistics, and many others.
Cosmeceuticals: An introduction
- Cosmetics arise from a Greek word ‘kosmeticos’ meaning ‘adorn’.
- If any material used for beautification or improvement of appearance is known as cosmetics.
- They may be applied to skin, hair and nails for the purpose of covering colouring, softening, cleansing, nourishing, and protection.
- • Cosmetics are intended to be applied externally.
- They include, but are not limited to, products that can be applied to the face: skin-care creams, lipsticks, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, and colored contact lenses; to the body: deodorants, lotions, powders, perfumes, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, and body butters; to the hands/nails: fingernail and toe nail polish, and hand sanitizer; to the hair: permanent chemicals, hair colors, hair sprays, and gels.
- A subset of cosmetics is called “makeup”, refers primarily to products containing color pigments that are intended to alter the user’s appearance. Manufacturers may distinguish between “decorative” and “care” cosmetics.
- Cosmetics that are meant to be used on the face and eye area are usually applied with a brush, a makeup sponge, or the fingertips.
- Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
Cosmetics can be also described by the physical composition of the product. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks
Classification of cosmetic and cosmeceutical products
A. Based on widely used body parts
- Skin cosmetics
- Hair cosmetics
- Face cosmetics
- Eye make ups
- Lip decorators & carers
- Nail cosmetics
B. Based on the Physical form
- Emulsions. Eg: cold cream; vanishing cream
- Powders. Eg: face powder, talcum powder, tooth powder
- Sticks. Eg: Lipsticks, deodorant sticks.
- Oils. Eg: hair oils
- Jellies. Eg: hair jelly
- Paste. Eg: Tooth past, deodorant paste
- Soap. Eg; shampoo, shaving soap
- Solution. Eg: After shave solution
- Aerosols. Eg: After shave spray
C. Based on function of Cosmetic preparation
- Emollient Preparation
- Cleansing Preparation
- Decorative Preparation
- Deodorant/ Antiperspirants
- Protective Preparations
Final Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise
Handbook of cosmetic science and technology / edited by Andre´ O. Barel, Marc Paye, Howard I. Maibach.