July 19, 2024

Cardiac output: Human heart

Cardiac output: Human heart

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that the heart pumps per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute. The human heart typically pumps about 5 liters of blood per minute at rest, but this can increase during physical activity or other times of increased demand.

Cardiac output is determined by two factors: heart rate and stroke volume. Heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute, while stroke volume is the amount of blood that the heart pumps with each beat. The formula for calculating cardiac output is:

Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume

For example, if a person has a heart rate of 70 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 70 milliliters per beat, their cardiac output would be:

Cardiac Output = 70 beats/minute x 70 mL/beat = 4.9 L/minute

The heart can increase its cardiac output in response to increased demand, such as during exercise or in response to stress. This is achieved by increasing both heart rate and stroke volume. During exercise, the sympathetic nervous system is activated, leading to an increase in heart rate and the release of hormones that increase stroke volume by increasing the force of heart contractions. This allows the heart to pump more blood to meet the body’s increased demand for oxygen and nutrients.

In summary, cardiac output is the amount of blood that the heart pumps per unit of time, and it is determined by heart rate and stroke volume. The human heart typically pumps about 5 liters of blood per minute at rest, but this can increase during physical activity or other times of increased demand.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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