To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation
To determine the average particle size and find out their distribution pattern for the given granules by sieve analysis method.
The sieve method gives sieve diameter, sieve diameter is defined as the diameter of the sphere that possesses through the sieve aperture as the asymmetric particle sieve method directly gives weight distribution. Particles having sizes ranging from 50 and 1500µm are estimated by the sieving method. In this method, the size is expressed as dsieve. The sieving method finds application in the dosage and development of tablets and capsules. Normally 15 percent of fine powder (passed through mesh 100) should be present in granulated material to get a proper flow of material and achieve good compaction in tabletting. Therefore, percent of coarse and fine can be quickly estimated. Sieves for pharmaceutical testing are constructed from wire cloth with square meshes, woven from wire of brass, bronze, stainless steel or any other suitable material.
Designations and Dimensions of I.P specification sieves
Advantages of the sieving method
- It is inexpensive, sample and rapid with reproducible results.
- The sieving method is useful when particles are having size range between 50 and 1500µm.
Disadvantages of sieving method
- The lower limit of the particle size is 50µm.
- If the powder is not dry, apertures become clogged with particles leading to improper sieving.
- During shaking, attrition occurs causing size reduction of particles. This leads to errors in estimation.
Factors influencing the sieving method
Factors influencing sieving are the weight of the sample, duration of shaking and type of motion. The types of motion influencing sieving are vibratory motion, (most efficient), side tap motion, bottom pat motion, and rotary motion with tap and rotary motion. The type of motion is standardized. Care should be taken in order to get reproducible results.
- Standard sieves set is selected (sieve no: 10, 22, 36, 44, 65, 80, 100,120) and arranged in such a manner that the coarsest remains at the top and the finest at the bottom.
- Weigh approximately 50g of sample, and place the sample on the coarsest sieve no.10.
- Fix the above sieves set them on a hand sieve shaker and shake for 20 minutes.
- Collect the sample retained on each sieve into a paper, and weigh all the ample.
- Report the weights retained on each sieve in the table against the corresponding sieve number
Report: The average diameter of the given granules was found to be = µm
Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion
I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.
Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise
- Factors influencing dermal penetration of drugs
- BIOSTATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Theory
- Pharmaceutical Analysis I Theory