Branches of microbiology

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, a large group of microscopic organisms that exist as single cells or cell clusters; it also includes viruses, which are microscopic but not cellular. Microorganisms have a tremendous impact on all life and the physical and chemical make-up of our planet.

They are responsible for cycling the chemical elements essential for life, including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen,
and oxygen; more photosynthesis is carried out by microorganisms than by green plants. It has been estimated that 5 x 1030 microbial cells exist on earth; these cells constitute about 90% of the biomass of the entire biosphere.

Humans also have an intimate relationship with microorganisms; more than 90% of the cells in our bodies are microbes.


Branches
The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences. There is overlap between the specific
branches of microbiology with each other and with other disciplines.

Pure microbiology
1-Bacteriology: The study of bacteria.
2-Mycology: The study of fungi.
3-Protozoology: The study of protozoa.
4-Phycology (or algology): The study of algae.
5-Parasitology: The study of parasites.
6-Immunology: The study of the immune system.
7-Virology: The study of the viruses.
8-Nematology: The study of the nematodes

Applied microbiology:

Medical microbiology:

The study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness. Includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology.

Pharmaceutical microbiology:

The study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products


Industrial microbiology:

The exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. Examples include industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment.

Microbial biotechnology:

The manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products.

Food Microbiology and Dairy microbiology:

The study of microorganisms causing food spoilage and food-borne illness. Using microorganisms to produce foods, for example by fermentation