May 30, 2024

Blood clotting factors and mechanism

Blood clotting factors and mechanism

Components involved in blood clotting

Blood clotting, or coagulation, is a complex process involving a series of steps that occur in response to an injury to a blood vessel. The following are the major components involved in blood clotting:


Small blood cells that help to form a plug at the site of an injury.

Coagulation factors:

A group of proteins that work together to form a clot.


A protein that forms a mesh-like structure that helps to hold the clot together.

Steps involved in blood clotting

The coagulation factors are numbered from I to XIII, with each factor playing a specific role in the clotting process. The following is a brief overview of the steps involved in blood clotting:

Platelet activation:

When an injury occurs, platelets become activated and begin to stick together to form a plug at the site of the injury.

Formation of prothrombinase:

The coagulation cascade is initiated by the formation of prothrombinase, which is formed by the activation of factor X.

Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin:

Prothrombinase converts prothrombin to thrombin, which is a key enzyme in the clotting process.

Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin:

Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin, which forms a mesh-like structure that helps to hold the clot together.

Clot retraction:

After the clot is formed, it begins to retract, pulling the edges of the injured blood vessel together and helping to stop the bleeding.


Once the injury has healed, the clot is broken down by the fibrinolytic system, which helps to prevent the formation of inappropriate blood clots.

In addition to these steps, there are several other factors and mechanisms that are involved in the complex process of blood clotting. It’s important to note that while blood clotting is essential for wound healing, the formation of inappropriate blood clots can lead to serious medical conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke.

First Year Pharm D Subjects Syllabus, Notes, PDF Books, MCQ

1.1Human Anatomy and Physiology
1.3Medicinal  Biochemistry
1.4Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry
1.5Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry
1.6Remedial Mathematics/ Biology

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