Anatomy of heart
The heart is a muscular organ located in the chest, between the lungs, and slightly to the left of the sternum. It is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and organs. The anatomy of the heart includes the following parts:
- Pericardium: The heart is surrounded by a tough, fibrous, and double-walled sac called the pericardium. It protects and anchors the heart in the chest.
- Epicardium: This is the outermost layer of the heart wall. It is a thin, transparent layer that covers the heart’s surface.
- Myocardium: The myocardium is the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall. It is composed of cardiac muscle cells that contract to pump blood out of the heart.
- Endocardium: The endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart wall. It lines the chambers of the heart and is continuous with the endothelium of blood vessels.
- Atria: The heart has two upper chambers called atria. They receive blood from the veins and pump it into the ventricles.
- Ventricles: The heart has two lower chambers called ventricles. They receive blood from the atria and pump it out of the heart into the arteries.
- Atrioventricular valves: These valves are located between the atria and ventricles. They prevent blood from flowing back into the atria when the ventricles contract.
- Semilunar valves: These valves are located between the ventricles and the arteries. They prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles when the heart relaxes.
- Septum: The septum is a thick wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart. It prevents oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood from mixing.
- Coronary arteries: These arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself.
Overall, the anatomy of the heart is complex, with various structures working together to maintain a healthy blood flow through the body.