November 29, 2023

Anatomy of heart

Anatomy of heart

The heart is a muscular organ located in the chest, between the lungs, and slightly to the left of the sternum. It is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and organs. The anatomy of the heart includes the following parts:

  1. Pericardium: The heart is surrounded by a tough, fibrous, and double-walled sac called the pericardium. It protects and anchors the heart in the chest.
  2. Epicardium: This is the outermost layer of the heart wall. It is a thin, transparent layer that covers the heart’s surface.
  3. Myocardium: The myocardium is the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall. It is composed of cardiac muscle cells that contract to pump blood out of the heart.
  4. Endocardium: The endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart wall. It lines the chambers of the heart and is continuous with the endothelium of blood vessels.
  5. Atria: The heart has two upper chambers called atria. They receive blood from the veins and pump it into the ventricles.
  6. Ventricles: The heart has two lower chambers called ventricles. They receive blood from the atria and pump it out of the heart into the arteries.
  7. Atrioventricular valves: These valves are located between the atria and ventricles. They prevent blood from flowing back into the atria when the ventricles contract.
  8. Semilunar valves: These valves are located between the ventricles and the arteries. They prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles when the heart relaxes.
  9. Septum: The septum is a thick wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart. It prevents oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood from mixing.
  10. Coronary arteries: These arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself.

Overall, the anatomy of the heart is complex, with various structures working together to maintain a healthy blood flow through the body.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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