May 19, 2024

Ammonium chloride: General methods of preparation, assay, properties and medicinal uses

Ammonium chloride: General methods of preparation, assay, properties and medicinal uses

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and has a salty taste. Ammonium chloride has a variety of medicinal uses and is also used in industrial and laboratory applications.


Ammonium chloride is prepared by reacting ammonia gas with hydrogen chloride gas or by combining ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride in a reaction that produces ammonium chloride and sodium sulfate.


The assay of ammonium chloride involves the determination of its purity by measuring its nitrogen content. This can be done by converting the ammonium chloride to ammonia gas and then measuring the amount of nitrogen gas produced.


Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 338°C and a boiling point of 520°C. It is soluble in water and has a pH of around 5.5-7.0 in solution. Ammonium chloride is hygroscopic, meaning it can absorb water from the air, and it can also decompose at high temperatures to release ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas.

Medicinal uses:

Ammonium chloride has several medicinal uses, including:

  1. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis: Ammonium chloride can be used to treat metabolic alkalosis, a condition in which the blood pH is too high, by acidifying the urine and increasing the excretion of bicarbonate ions.
  2. Cough suppressant: Ammonium chloride is used as a cough suppressant in some over-the-counter medications, such as cough drops, because it can help to loosen and break up mucus in the respiratory tract.
  3. Electrolyte replacement: Ammonium chloride can be used to replace lost electrolytes in the body, particularly chloride ions.
  4. Acidifying agent: Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in some foods and beverages, such as bread and sports drinks.
  5. Treatment of urinary tract infections: Ammonium chloride can help to acidify the urine and reduce the growth of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

Overall, ammonium chloride is a versatile compound with several medicinal uses, including treatment of metabolic alkalosis, cough suppression, electrolyte replacement, acidifying agent, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

Suggested readings:

Limit Test of Arsenic